Beyond a 1MHz bandwidth, multiplier chips usually need
external amplifiers and biasing, and many cannot deliver
their promised accuracy and performance without external
trimming components. Those burdens have largely kept
single-chip multipliers out of communication applications.
Mixer circuits, for example, have instead relied on signaldiode
rings, even though those rings bring their own performance
drawbacks, including poor low-frequency response
and narrow frequency and power ranges.